21 CFR 11.10(h): Input Checks

FDA regulated computer systems should have the appropriate controls in place to ensure that data inputs are valid. This verification is called an input check.

Text of 21 CFR 11.10(h)

Persons who use closed systems to create, modify, maintain, or transmit electronic records shall employ procedures and controls designed to ensure the authenticity, integrity, and, when appropriate, the confidentiality of electronic records, and to ensure that the signer cannot readily repudiate the signed record as not genuine. Such procedures and controls shall include the following:


The system should be able to perform an input check to ensure the source of the data being input is valid. In some cases, this means a monitor should be available such that someone entering data can see what they entered. This can also mean that data is restricted to particular input devices or sources. Data should not be entered into a regulated computer system without the owner knowing the source of the data.


Document how data is input into the system. If data is being collected from another external system, describe the connection to that source and how the system verifies the identity of the source data.

If you need more information or assistance with training on input checks or assessing your systems to see if they have adequate input checks, please contact us to arrange consultation services.

Compare this requirement with Annex 11 Section 6., Accuracy Checks.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q: Does every data field require verification before entry into the system?
A: In general, only critical fields require data verification. However, as much as a program can restrict extraneous data entry through drop-down lists, restricted numeric ranges, or date ranges, etc., will generally improve the quality of the data. When users are allowed to enter any possible value, they will enter any and all possible unexpected values.

Q: Do I need to specifically validate that my system accepts data from a keyboard or mouse?
A: Generally speaking, we document that the use of the keyboard and mouse is tested implicitly throughout the validation and do not create a specific test case to verify input from these devices. If a system uses another data entry source, such as a bar code reader, we generally do include a test to verify that data is successfully entered into the system.

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