Data integrity is the idea of maintaining and ensuring the accuracy and consistency of data over its
lifecycle. This includes good data management practices, such as preventing data from being altered
each time it is copied or moved. Data integrity applies to both paper records and electronic records.
Processes and procedures are put in place for companies to maintain data integrity during normal
Data in its final state is the driving force behind industry decision making. Raw data must be changed
and processed to reach a more usable format. Data integrity ensures that this data is attributable,
legible, contemporaneous, original, and accurate (ALCOA). Data can easily become compromised if
proper measures are not taken to ensure data safety. Errors with data integrity commonly rise from
human error, noncompliant operating procedures, data transfers, software defects, compromised
hardware, and physical compromise to devices. Maintaining data integrity is a necessary part of the
industry’s responsibility to ensure the safety, effectiveness, and quality of their products .
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